Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management, Volume 17, Issue 1, 2022
Impact of inclusive leadership on adaptive performance:
The role of innovative work behaviour
Mohammad Saleh Enaizan Bataineh
Department of Business Administration, College of Administrative & Financial Sciences, Irbid
National University
Eastern District, Irbid, 00962, Jordan
Tel: +962 788619072
Email: bataineh1986@gmail.com, m.bataineh@inu.edu.jo
Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal
School of Management, USM
USM, Penang, 11800, Malaysia
Tel: +604 6535155
Email: siti_rohaida@usm.my
Rajendran Muthuveloo
Graduate Schools of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Penang, 11800, Malaysia
Tel: +60164430047
Email: rajen789@usm.my
Raheel Yasin
Graduate Schools of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Pulau Pinang, 11800, Malaysia
Tel: +92 302 4431904
Email: raheelyasin@yahoo.com
Joather Al Wali
Graduate Schools of Business, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Av. Pulau Pinang, 11800, Malaysia
Tel: +601162233448
Email: joather12@gmail.com
Mohamed Ibrahim Mugableh
Department of Finance & Banking Science, College of Administrative & Financial Sciences, Irbid
National University
P.O Box 2600, 21110, Jordan
Tel: +962 90956497
Email: dr.magableh@inu.edu.jo
As an organizational behaviour, job performance can be described from two perspectives, namely
organizational citizenship behaviour and task performance. To enhance the concept of job performance,
especially in servicing jobs (e.g., nursing), recent literature has considered the construct of adaptive
performance. Thus, the major purpose of this research is to analyze the nexus between inclusive
leadership (IL) and adaptive performance (AP) among private hospital nurses in Jordan using
innovative work behaviour (IWB) as a mediating variable. Our study uses questionnaires to collect data
from 169 nurses who work in different private hospitals in Jordan. The nature of the study is
quantitative and cross-sectional, with individuals as the unit of analysis. The survey questionnaires,
which consist of measures of IL, AP, and IWB, were distributed to the full-time nurses in the hospitals.
The empirical outcomes show that IL has a direct and significant predictive effect on AP, and an
indirect predictive effect through innovative work behaviour. This study discusses the practical and
Mohammad Saleh Enaizan Bataineh, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal, Rajendran Muthuveloo, Raheel
Yasin, Joather Al Wali and Mohamed Ibrahim Mugableh
theoretical implications of the empirical results. The outcomes of this study could help practitioners
and policy makers to create effective IL and IWB that can enhance employees’ adaptability towards
their organization with a view to boosting their AP.
Keywords: inclusive leadership (IL), innovative work behaviour (IWB), adaptive performance (AP)
Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management / Business-and-Management.org
It is generally acknowledged that the nature of jobs is rapidly changing, and this shift is evident in
all phases of organizational research evaluation, including individual job efficiency and global business
strategies (Charbonnier-Voirin & Roussel, 2012). Technological improvement, corporate globalization,
and the recurring mergers and acquisitions have created smooth and dynamic work environments.
Several factors are forcing businesses to stay competitive via creativity and innovation. This makes the
leadership role inevitable in the pursuit of innovative and competitive. Recent literature has indicated
that IL is fundamental for the era (Javed, Guo, & Figgis, 2017). According to Nembhard and
Edmondson (2006), who initially developed the idea, the three essential attributes of inclusive leaders
are being accessible, open and available. They noted that inclusive leaders are leaders who can be
simply accessible as well as available to heed their subordinates’ novel ideas.
Some previous studies have indicated a positive connection between the relational leadership role
and IWB (Carmeli, Reiter-Palmon, & Ziv, 2010; Javed et al., 2017). Essentially, Krischer (2009)
considered AP as the identification of the need or opportunities to vigorously enhance competence and
good behaviour in reaction to current or expected changes, and the development of requirements and
the ability to adjust to the workplace effectively. Constant technological changes and organizational
integration and restructuring underscore the need for employees to acquire new skills and improve their
flexibility and adaptability (Ilgen & Pulakos, 1999). Consequently, the role of AP in facilitating this
process cannot be overemphasized. As a disregarded construct of job performance, AP has started to
gain special attention in recent years. Fundamentally, boosting efficiency, effectiveness, and
productivity are intimately associated with job performance (Krischer, 2009; Nasir, 2019).
Nevertheless, one study has suggested that AP may possibly be a significant determinant if not a
distinctive component of job performance. Pulakos et al. (2000) have contributed significantly to the
discipline of the AP concept and configuration. They noted that the concept of AP can be described as
“transform[ing] individuals' behavior to tackle changes in the environment, the new working situations
or new work prerequisite resulting from the incident.” Moreover, another recent study (Yu, 2020)
reported that IL and AP have a significant positive link. Hence, anything that happens to employees in
their workplace will appear from their emotional response. A supportive leader as well as cooperation
among employees will improve goal achievement and personal development, thereby showing greater
AP in the workplace.
Although some studies have been conducted on the nexus between IL and IWB, the literature on
IL is still developing (Javed et al., 2018; Qi et al., 2019). While Moss, Dowling and Callanan (2009)
stressed the importance of leading procedures and attributes in dynamic job situations to create AP,
there are limited theories and studies on this subject. Specifically, earlier studies focused mainly on the
individual factors that determine AP. For instance, Naami et al. (2014) investigated the nexus between
personality traits and AP, whereas Javed et al. (2017) examined Islamic Work Ethic, IWB, ethical
leadership and AP, and Hoandră, (2017) examined transactional leadership, task conflict, cross-
understanding, and AP. Particularly, our study underscores a distinctive method of relational leadership
(i.e., IL) since the nexus between IL and AP has not been given adequate attention in the empirical
literature. Therefore, our study contributes to the literature on the discipline of AP and enthusiasm at
work in the following ways. First, our research seeks to ascertain the connection between IL and AP.
Second, it determines the mediating role of IWB in the relationship between IL and AP. Therefore, this
current research aims to add to the literature by incorporating AP into the criterion domain associated
with IL and IWB.
Gerybadze et al. (2010) posited that the role of leaders in supportive behaviour is more essential
than several explanatory factors for employees’ IWB. Some studies revealed that IWB boosts job
performance (Abdullah et al., 2019; Gong, Huang, & Farh, 2009; Janssen, 2000; Nasir, 2019) albeit the
influence of IWB on AP has not been thoroughly explored. Employees adapt to job requirements
effectively through IWB by improving themselves via innovation (Janssen, Van de Vliert, & West,
2004). Particularly, Gilson (2008) argued that employees with creative work usually display high
performance. Some studies indicated that IWB improves the expected job performance of employees
(Aryee, Walumbwa, Zhou, & Hartnell, 2012; Yuan & Woodman, 2010), and this anticipated
performance within the context of change signifies the employeesAP. In fact,, AP is critical to the
success of staff in jobs with new or modified requirements (Jundt, Shoss, & Huang, 2015). AP is
considered as a central tool for enhancing organizational efficiency (Kanten, Kanten, & Gurlek, 2015).
It is perceived as one of the critical forces that drive company success. However, the mechanism of IL
remains in the exploratory phase, as some studies have attempted to explore the factors that influence
Mohammad Saleh Enaizan Bataineh, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal, Rajendran Muthuveloo, Raheel
Yasin, Joather Al Wali and Mohamed Ibrahim Mugableh
employee innovation behaviour (Zhang & Ma, 2017). Zeng, Zhao, and Zhao (2020) examined the
influence of IL on employees' taking-charge behaviour, as well as the mediating role of psychological
safety and thriving at work. Yu (2020) also investigated the impact of IL on AP. Though considerable
research has been conducted on the influence of IL on various work outcomes and individual or
organizational behaviours, there are a number of overlooked research areas that require thorough
investigation. What is more, the mediating role of IWB in the nexus between IL and AP has not been
thoroughly explored. This study aims to propose a model of the influence of IL on IWB, IWB on AP,
IL on AP, and IWB mediates the relation between IL on AP as presented in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Theoretical Framework
3.1. Inclusive leadership and innovative work behaviour
According to Nembhard and Edmondson (2006: 947), IL refers to leaders’ words and deeds that
signify an invitation and appreciation of the contributions of others. Precisely, inclusive leaders ensure
that employees participate in decision-making (Carmeli, Reiter-Palmon, & Ziv, 2010; Dorenbosch,
Engen, & Verhagen, 2005; Khan et al., 2021) since they enhance the ability of employees to create new
and novel ideas (Sharifirad & Ataei, 2012). Similarly, Basadur (2004) posited that the creation of new
ideas is the first phase of IWB. Inclusive leaders make sure that employees have access to vital tangible
and intangible resources of the organization (Mansoor et al., 2021) thereby facilitating the promotion
and implementation of new ideas by the employees (Scott & Bruce, 1994; Afsar, Badir, & Saeed,
2014). Hence, it seems that inclusive leaders boost the individual innovative behaviour, which
emphasizes the prominent role of leadership in this regard. For example, Shakil et al. (2021) and
Kayaalp, Page, & Gumus (2021) noted that the supportive role of leaders in behaviour is more critical
compared to most explanatory variables that determine IWB. The high risks associated with individual
innovative behaviour show that it represents a non-routine behaviour that enables the employees to
create new ideas, rather than the traditional thinking (Kanter, 1988; Kessel, HannemannWeber, &
Kratzer, 2012). This indicates that employees interrogate the status quo by disagreeing with superiors.
Thus, employees require a high degree of autonomy to encourage IWB (Janssen, 2005). The employees
who are supported by leadership can have the autonomy and freedom to express novel ideas (Foss,
Woll, & Moilanen, 2013). A significant connection with IL enables the employees to acquire
leadership support relating to beneficial resources (e.g., time, materials, space, innovation-related
information, political support for legitimacy), which enhances their capacity to promote, develop, and
apply new ideas (Ilies, Nahrgang, & Morgeson, 2007; Hollander, 2009; Shore et al., 2011; Liu, Liao, &
Loi, 2012; Kimura, 2012; Choi, Tran, & Park, 2015; Wang, Fang, Qureshi, & Janssen, 2015;
Piansoongnern, 2016; Fang et al., 2019; Ng & Salamzadeh, 2020). Lastly, inclusive leaders can
improve the emotions and positive feelings of employees (Javed et al., 2019), thereby inspiring them to
engage in innovative tasks (Carmeli, Reiter-Palmon, & Ziv, 2010; Mansoor et al., 2021). Several
studies have revealed that IL is a significant determinant of employees' IWB (Javed et al., 2017; Javed
et al., 2019; Mansoor et al., 2021).
H1: Inclusive leadership has a positive and significant influence on innovative work behaviour.
Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management / Business-and-Management.org
3.2. Inclusive leadership and adaptive performance
Some studies have indicated that AP is a kind of job performance which differs from the
organization’s task performance and citizenship behaviour (Han & Williams, 2008). According to
Allworth and Hesketh (1999), AP refers to the behaviours that show the capability to deal with change
and transfer learning from one task to another since work requirements are different. This definition
implies that adaptability is exhibited if employees can effectively cope with work adjustments. In
addition, Pulakos et al. (2000) considered adaptive efficiency as the change that happens to someone’s
conduct in order to meet the conditions of a new situation. Therefore, two things necessary for adaptive
behaviour to be achievable include a change in the environment, and the capacity of the individual to
effectively deal with the change. The concept of employee performance has been enlarged to
encompass behaviours that support organisational development since the early 1990s. Furthermore, AP
refers to the individual’s capacity to adapt to dynamic or changing work situations (Pulakos, et al.,
2000, Pulakos et al., 2002; Pulakos, Dorsey & White, 2006), as well as the ability to adjust behaviour
based on the requirements or demand of the new situations or environments (Johnson, 2001).
Regrettably, these improvements have hardly been complemented by recommendations of
measurement tools which incorporate the full range of required behaviours. Therefore, this current
study uses the social exchange theory (Blau, 1964; Gouldner, 1960) to provide a reasonable
explanation of how IL can enhance the task performance of subordinates with IL. More precisely, the
social exchange theory postulates that social exchanges involve unspecified requirements, and when
one person favours another, there exists an anticipation of future reciprocity (Gouldner, 1960).
In essence, if supervisors handle their subordinates in a good manner, the subordinates will
reciprocate in a favourable manner by engaging in positive behaviour that will favour the supervisor,
such as increasing their efforts or performance. Guo et al. (2014) conducted a study using the lens of
social exchange theory and 202 supervisorsubordinate dyads from 12 enterprises in China. Evidence
from the study showed that the supervisor’s development feedback has a significant positive impact on
the job performance of employees. IL in the group is capable of reducing the employees’ perception of
being overlooked and disregarded in the workplace. The need of individuals to belong is rooted in
evolution, and a yearning for inclusion could create survival and reproductive benefits (Baumeister and
Leary, 1995). Moreover, apart from employees responding to their supervisor’s IL via the provision of
greater effort and performance in the workplace, the employees can decide to be proactive in order to
strengthen their relationship with their supervisor (Gouldner, 1960; Lam et al., 2015). IL implies that
subordinates work together across levels, roles and demographic boundaries with a view to solving
shared problems via participative decision making (Nishii, 2013). The integration of diverse
employees’ perspectives implies that the supervisors have confidence in the employees as well as
having concern and respect for them (Huang et al., 2010). Particularly, Huang et al. (2010) revealed
that supervisors' participative leadership behaviour has a positive influence on employee task
performance. The study also showed that psychological empowerment and trust-in-supervisor have
mediating effects on the impact of participative leadership on task performance.
Some studies in the field of IL and performance have documented a positive link between
transformational leadership and AP, learning, and innovation climate (Han & Williams, 2008; El
Akremi, Vandenberghe & Camerman, 2010). However, since the concept of IL is not fully developed,
there is scanty empirical literature on IL’s antecedents and outcomes. Nonetheless, some research has
reported that IL can predict a positive work behaviour. For instance, Jundt, Shoss and Huang (2015)
established a positive connection between transformational leadership and AP, whereas Carmeli,
Reiter-Palmon and Ziv (2010) reported that IL has a significant influence on worker engagement in
workplace creativity. Furthermore, Javed et al. (2017, 2018) showed that a positive association exists
between IL and innovative work behaviours, while Choi, Tran, and Kang (2015) found that IL has a
positive influence on the well-being of employees. The research conducted by Randel et al. (2018)
indicated a positive effect of IL, whereas Khan et al. (2021) noted that IL has a direct impact on AP and
an indirect effect via psychological safety. Results also confirmed the significant mediation of
psychological safety and learning behaviours. Based on the analysis of previous studies, our study
proposes a positive connection between IL and AP.
H2: Inclusive leadership has a positive and significant influence on adaptive performance.
3.3. Innovative work behaviour and adaptive performance
Employees that are Innovative usually gather and apply a variety of information to produce novel
and creative ideas that can enhance existing practices (Aryee et al., 2012; Nimfa et al., 2021).
Moreover, innovative workers have the willingness to acquire knowledge, and discover and create
novel ideas to solve important issues, thereby improving job performance (Amabile et al., 2005).
According to Walumbwa, Cropanzano & Hartnell (2009), the willingness of workers to learn is
Mohammad Saleh Enaizan Bataineh, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal, Rajendran Muthuveloo, Raheel
Yasin, Joather Al Wali and Mohamed Ibrahim Mugableh
essential to job performance because learning motivates workers to gain new knowledge that will
enable them to accomplish their tasks LePine et al. (2005) noted that challenge stressors have the
capacity to improve the motivation and performance of employees. Based on the extant literature, our
study proposes that innovative behaviour has a positive link with employees’ job performance. Janssen
(2000) argued that innovative behaviour boosts the role performance of employees. Precisely, role
performance is considered as the anticipated performance. In a dynamic context, it signifies the AP of
employees which enables the worker to cope with new changes (Shoss, Witt & Vera, 2012). However,
from the empirical viewpoint, only few scholars have investigated the correlation between workers'
innovative behaviour and performances (Dörner, 2012; Fink et al., 2017). The innovative behaviour of
employees enables them to accomplish the desired performance (Yuan & Woodman, 2010). In a
dynamic setting, the expected performance signifies the AP that the organisation anticipates from the
workers to survive in a new setting. The analysis above indicates that IWB has the capacity to enhance
AP (Javed et al., 2017). Furthermore, some scholars (Rosenbusch et al., 2011; Campbell et al., 1996)
have emphasized the need to conduct research into the link between innovative behaviour and job
performance, especially at the individual level. Consequently, our research proposes the following
H3: Innovative work behaviour has a positive and significant influence on adaptive performance.
3.4. Inclusive leadership and adaptive performance: Mediating role of innovative work
Innovative employees have the tendency to gather and apply a variety of information to generate
new ideas and enhance existing processes (Aryee et al., 2012). Employees who are innovative have
the tendency and willingness to learn, discover and create new ideas to resolve crucial issues in order to
enhance job performance (Amabile et al., 2005; Nasir et al., 2019). According to Walumbwa et al.
(2009), the willingness of employees to learn is fundamental to job performance, since learning
encourages employees to collect new information that will assist them to perform their jobs. LePine et
al. (2005) and Nasir et al. (2019) posited that challenge stressors improve the motivation and
performance of employees. Consistent with the extant literature, this current study anticipates a
positive association between employees' innovative behaviour and job performance. Janssen (2000)
also argued that individual innovative behaviour improves employees’ role performance. Specifically,
role performance refers to the anticipated performance. In a changing environment, it signifies the AP
of employees as they adjust to new changes (Shoss, Witt, & Vera, 2012; Khan et al., 2021). However,
few empirical studies have investigated the nexus between individual innovative behaviour, IL, and
performance (Nembhard & Edmondson, 2006; Dörner, 2012). It is acknowledged that individual
innovative behaviour helps employees to attain the anticipated performance (Yuan & Woodman, 2010).
Within the perspective of new changes, expected performance implies the AP that the organization
envisages from employees to deal with the new changes. This literature review indicates that individual
innovative behaviour boosts AP (Javed et al., 2017). Some studies (Rosenbusch et al., 2011& Campbell
et al., 1996) have emphasized the need to conduct research on individual innovative behaviour and job
performance at the individual level. The above findings revealed that IL improves employees’ IWB,
while IWB boosts AP. Charbonnie-Voirin et al. (2010) agued that AP encompasses five domains:
learning, managing unexpected situations and emergencies, creative problem solving, work stress
management, and interpersonal compatibility. Specifically, the first area emphasizes swift response and
effective alternatives during difficulties and new situations. Nonetheless, not much research has been
conducted on the mediating role of IWB on the nexus between work IL and AP. Hence, we propose the
following hypothesis.
H4: Innovative work behaviour mediates the relationship between inclusive leadership and
adaptive performance.
4.1. Sample and procedure
This study collected data from private hospital nurses in Jordan for the purpose of determining the
relationship between IL and AP using IWB as a mediator. The rationale for choosing these
organizations is because they are confronted with high pressure in a changing and complex
environment even as they focus on AP. Moreover, the justification for choosing private hospital nurses
is because most hospitals have challenges in the efficient management of nurses (Afsar, Cheema
&Masood, 2017). As for the hospitals in Jordan, the prevalent types or causes of adverse events are
linked to workload and insufficient personnel, poor management, technical performance, psychosocial
Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management / Business-and-Management.org
work demands, a lack of ethics and negligence (Gatasheh et al., 2017). Some studies have indicated
that nurses in Jordan are confronted with challenges and high stress (Hamaideh & Ammouri, 2011;
Nawafleh, 2014; USAID, 2016).
Prior to distribution of the questionnaires, the researcher contacted the HR Department in-charge
of operations in every Departments to seek their consent or willingness to participate in this research.
The researcher asked the HR Department to show the number of people who were willing to complete
the survey in each Department. The data collection was done in a study program that sought to
investigate the link between AP and IL, using IWB as a mediating variable among private hospital
nurses. To recruit respondents as well as account for social desirability bias (i.e., predisposition of
participants to provide responses to the question items in such a way another individual perceived it as
favourable), the study adopted the following process. The author briefly introduced the purpose of the
study in the work sites. The directors of the Human Resource Department were contacted, and the
rationale for collecting the data was explained to them. In the meetings, the author presented a covering
letter which indicated that it was voluntary to participate in this study, and the data gathered would
remain confidential.
Beside the statement of confidentiality, the covering letter stated that none of the participants is
known by the author. Other precise instructions provided in the questionnaire included: (i) Please,
kindly spend some minutes completing the questionnaire. (ii) Your honesty is highly solicited since
there are no right or wrong answers to these questions. (iii) Since all the responses will be reported in
aggregated form, the participants are strictly anonymous. (iv) None of the participants can be identified
by the researcher based on their responses. (v) Kindly remember that it is voluntary to participate in
this survey. When people had understood the aim of the study, the covering letter was read by the
directors, and they approved the data collection in their respective organizations.
Since this research is a time-lag study, the data collection was conducted with two time lags. At
time 1, the respondents completed the question items regarding the predictor (IL) variable as well as
the demographic variables. At time 2 (after a period of one month), the same participants were asked to
complete the question items regarding the dependent variable (AP) and the mediating variable (IWB).
For the purpose of matching the participants at time 1 and time 2, they were instructed at time 1 to
indicate their job ID. Essentially, the researcher explained the rationale to them, emphasizing that the
researcher would visit them after an interval of two months with additional question items. The
respondents appreciated the idea of a job ID since it ensured their anonymity. Out of the 253
questionnaires administered, 192 were returned. However, after data cleaning, a sample of 169 was
utilized for the analysis while 23 responses were rejected because of incomplete data. The total
response rate stood at 66%. Table-1 contains the employees' demographic characteristics.
Table 1: Demographic Profile of Respondents
Percentage %
Status of your job
Full time
Your Position
Age (years):
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
40 to 44
More than 44
Highest level of education
Doctorate degree
Master’s degree
Bachelor’s degree
Professional Certificate
4.2. Measurements
AP scale: This scale covers 5 areas and 19 items obtained from CharbonnieVoirin. et al (2010).
The breakdown shows that 4 items deal with emergencies and unexpected situations; 3 items deal with
work stress management; 4 items deal with creative problem solving; 4 items deal with learning; and 4
Mohammad Saleh Enaizan Bataineh, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal, Rajendran Muthuveloo, Raheel
Yasin, Joather Al Wali and Mohamed Ibrahim Mugableh
items deal with interpersonal adjustment. The measurement scales were validated with confirmatory
factor analysis, and the coefficient alpha ranged from 0.84 to 0.89.
IL scale: The items were adapted from Carmeli, Palmon and Ziv, (2010), and they included “the
manager is open to hearing new ideas”, “the manager is ready to listen to my requests”. There are 9
items that measure three dimensions: openness, effectiveness, and accessibility. Each item is measured
on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 “strongly disagree” to 5 “strongly agree”.
IWB scale: The items on this variable were adapted from Janssen (2000), who described IWB as
the deliberate introduction, creation and utilization of new ideas within a work role or organization to
benefit role performance or the organization. The scale comprises 9 items that measure the degree to
which an employee participates in IWB. The point-scale ranges from 1 = ‘never’ to 5 = ‘always’. The
coefficient alpha of the nine items was a 0.94. The data coding was done such that a higher score
signifies a higher level of innovative work behaviour.
4.3. Control variables
In this study, the control variables are age, gender and education. The extant literature indictaed
that these variables influence individual perceptions of IWB and AP in the workplace (Bell &
Kozlowski, 2008; Pulakos et al., 2002).
Our study employs a self-administered questionnaire for data collection from a single source.
Consequently, there is a possibility that common method variance (CMV) could exist in the data.
Hence, our research utilizes procedural and statistical techniques to tackle the issue (Schwarz et al.,
2017). Specifically, we use the Harmon’s single factor to ascertain common method bias, and the
outcomes indicated that the first factor accounts for 28% of the variation. This implies that common
method bias has no effect on our research (Babin et al., 2016).
During the analysis of the measurement model, this study found that the loadings of some items
were below 0.5. Consequently, 6 items were removed. The loading value of the remaining items'
average construct validity ranges from 0.603 to 0.907. The results of convergent validity in terms of
loading, average variance extracted (AVE), and the composite reliability (CR) were satisfactory. The
AVE values range from 0.506 to 0.749, implying a satisfactory convergent validity. The CR values
range from 0.929 to 0.964.
To assess the discriminant validity, we compare the AVE square root with the latent variable
correlations. Discriminant validity is satisfactory if the AVE square root is greater than the values of all
correlations (Chin, 2010), as presented in Table-2. What is more, all HTMT values are less than 0.85,
suggesting discriminant validity of the three constructs (Henseler et al., 2015).
Table 2: Discriminant Validity HTMT
Adaptive Performance
Inclusive Leadership
Innovative Work Behavior
Having controlled for age, gender and tenure, the R2 values are AP= 0.196 and IWB = 0.244. The
results show that IL is positively related to AP = 0.260, p < 0.05); IL is positively related to IWB
= 0.494, p < 0.05); IWB is positively related to AP = 0.252, p < 0.05). The study confirmed that
IWB mediates the relationship between IL and AP = 0.124, p < 0.05). Consequently, H1, H2, H3,
and H4 are supported.
Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management / Business-and-Management.org
Table 3: Path Coefficient and Hypothesis Testing
P Values
IL -> AP
The results show that IL is positively related to both AP and IWB. The study also indicates that
IWB mediates the relationship between IL and AP. Hence, IL significantly predicts AP. This finding is
consistent with the empirical outcome which indicated that IL enhances employees’ attitude towards
change (Yousef, 2000a), which enables them to meet new change (Ali, 1996), thereby displaying AP.
Moreover, the positive relationship between IL and individual AP indicates that IL enables employees
via creative involvement (Ikhwan-us-Safa, 1999, p. 286; Khan et al., 2015) to productively resolve the
problems. Some studies indicated that creative problem-solving enables the employees to adopt new
changes that engender AP (Jong & De Ruyter, 2004). Moreover, IL underscores persistence in work
and assists employees’ persistence in work and adapting to new changes, especially in dynamic
conditions. Therefore, IL improves AP in organizations. In a work environment, leadership guides the
behaviour of employees and encourages them to manifest job-related behaviour (Ali & Al-Owaihan,
2008). This suggests that IL fosters innovation in the context of new changes (Kumar & Rose, 2012),
thereby enhancing the capacity of employees to show IWB. Furthermore, this study has provided
empirical evidence to show the mediating role of IWB in the relationship between IL and AP. Since IL
is based on high effort, precision and struggle (Ali & Al-Owaihan, 2008), employees who have high
effort with precision in direction and struggle to create novel and valuable ideas assist them to manifest
IWB. This enables them to adapt to the requirements of new work in a dynamic environment.
Employees can participate in a specific task with full concentration through IL (Khan et al., 2015)
and this concentration at work improves individuals’ IWB, especially in the context of innovation. IL
boosts the innovation of employees by improving their capacity to create and execute novel ideas
(Kumar & Rose, 2012), thereby accelerating their IWB. In fact, employees that have IWB can adapt
effectively to their jobs (Janssen et al., 2004) by introducing and applying novel technology that
enhances their performance (Benner & Tushman, 2003). Furthermore, IWB is capable of helping
employees to achieve the expected performance (Farr & Ford, 1990; Yuan & Woodman, 2010), and
organizations anticipate high employee performance by adapting to changes, especially in a dynamic
environment. IWB encompasses the introduction and application of novel technologies and new
techniques of work which are “better” than the existing ones (Yuan & Woodman, 2010), which leads to
effectiveness/efficiency gains (Benner & Tushman, 2003). Hence, IWB enables employees to adjust
themselves to adapt successfully to the job (Janssen et al., 2004) with a view to improving individual
performance (Hammer & Stanton, 1999). The employees that possess IL have the tendency to display
greater IWB, even if IWB is not a routine behaviour. Hence, as new challenges and perspectives
confront the employees (Schermuly, Meyer, & Dämmer, 2013), they require assistance from leadership
to cope with the new situation.
Essentially, IL feedback enables employees to freely articulate new ideas. Hence, employees
receive greater encouragement from the leader and confront the new situation by disagreeing with the
leader as they develop and implement novel ideas (Javed, 2017). If employees recognize IL in the
work environment, their interest in the job will increase (Qi, 2019). They will consider themselves as
mutually involved in effective leadership (Collinson & Collinson, 2009). Therefore, employees display
greater IWB in the presence of inclusive leadership. Low IL makes the employees easily perceive the
leader’s controlling behaviour and consider the leader as an individual who maintains the standard
operating procedures (Liu, Liao, & Loi, 2012). Thus, employees abstain from confronting the defined
work standards in generating and implementing innovative ideas. Employees display lower IWB when
there is a controlling leadership, which lessens the relationship between IWB and AP.
7.1. Theoretical implications
This study will contribute to the body of knowledge on private hospital nurses in Jordan by
shedding light on the relation between IL, IWB and AP in the healthcare field, in which knowledge and
skills are rapidly and constantly changing. This will help address the current shortage of research in this
area and provide real-world value to health organizations by filling the gap of private hospital nurses in
Mohammad Saleh Enaizan Bataineh, Siti Rohaida Mohamed Zainal, Rajendran Muthuveloo, Raheel
Yasin, Joather Al Wali and Mohamed Ibrahim Mugableh
Jordan according to the theoretical framework based on the review of recent literature. Some previous
studies have investigated the link between IL and other variables, such as psychological safety, trust in
a leader, IWB and innovative actions (Javed et al., 2017; Randel et al., 2018; Qi et al., 2019; Khan et
al., 2021).
However, our research contributes to extant literature by using other outcome variables (i.e.,
employee AP) within a leader inclusion setting using social exchange theory (Blau, 1964; Gouldner,
1960). Workers receive greater leadership support, and sometimes interrogate the existing situation by
not agreeing with the leader on the ways to develop and implement novel concepts (Tu & Yu, 2017).
Essentially, the generation of ideas is critical in solving problems, thereby leading to greater efficiency
of employees (Basadur, 2004). Some previous studies have reported that IWB enhances the expected
job performance of workers (Aryee, Walumbwa, Zhou & Hartnell, 2012; Yuan & Woodman, 2010).
This anticipated performance reflects workers’ AP in a situation of change. IWB can enable workers to
attain the required success (Farr & Ford, 1990; Yuan & Woodman, 2010). In addition, the existing
research is based on the theory of social exchange, which states the dual-reciprocal relationship
between IL and AP, which describes how an individual adapts / fits well into the organization. The
theory of social exchange (SET) suggests that social elements exist in contractual relationships;
individuals willingly provide benefits to other parties, which allows the party to provide benefits in
return (Maguire, 2002), The study’s research framework is consistent with the theory of social
exchange (Blau, 1964), which conceptualized the impact of IL on both IWB and AP, an issue that has
been overlooked by previous studies. The empirical outcomes of this study revealed the effect of IL on
IWB and AP.
This study also conceptualized the impact of IWB on AP (an issue that has not been thoroughly
explored in the literature) and confirmed a significant relationship between the two variables. In
addition, this study conceptualized and confirmed the mediating role of IWB on the relationship
between IL and AP. The findings confirmed the mediating mechanism of IWB on the nexus between
IL and AP. This study emphasized the need for researchers to appraise the competing theories
regarding the intervening variables, which could explain the capacity of IWB to predict AP and other
outcomes. Additionally, our research expands the literature by analyzing the mediating influence of
IWB on the nexus between IL and AP. Since this issue has not been thoroughly explored in the
empirical literature, our research makes a unique contribution to the extant literature. According to the
process viewpoint of leadership, the characteristics of IL enable the behaviour of workers to positively
influence their perceptions of the organizational setting in a manner beneficial to AP.
7.2. Practical implications
This study has some practical implications for managers since it emphasized the other factors that
have impacts on IL and adaptive efficiency. In a dynamic setting, IL enables employees to behave
innovatively (Kessel et al., 2012; Janssen, 2005), which leads to adaptive efficiency. Consequently, this
study stimulated interest in innovative behaviour, which will foster employees’ capacity to integrate IL
in their job performance. Moreover, this study draws the attention of management to the supportive
role of leadership in the work environment. IL encourages employees by highlighting openness,
availability and accessibility to create the necessary conditions for them to express their opinions and
articulate new ideas or speak against the status quo (Dorenbosch, Engen, & Verhagen, 2005; De Jong
& Den Hartog, 2010; Javed, 2017). Basically, employees consider IL as a supportive role of the leader
which boosts their IWB. Therefore, to achieve IWB, it is imperative for managers to emphasize their
role as an ethical leader. This is because leadership occupies a crucial position in organizational
psychology by fostering sportsmanship behaviour at the group and individual levels. It is necessary for
top management to underscore appropriate interventions to encourage positive psychology at the
organizational level (Mayer, Aquino, Greenbaum, & Kuenzi, 2012). The empirical outcomes indicate
that recognition practices and IL have significant effects on IWB and AP. Based on the findings, our
study recommends that private hospitals should endeavor to integrate IL to achieve effective IWB and
AP. It may be necessary for management to incorporate elements that can improve effective IL and
IWB. Such elements include focusing on the goals / visions of the organization, as well as making the
workers appreciate the significance of AP within the organization. Thus, it is imperative for leaders to
initiate and execute training programs that can develop a close connection with employees. The
environmental complications of new changes have emphasized innovation and creativity as vital
sources of market competition (Pan, Sun, & Chow, 2012; Brettel, Chomik, & Flatten, 2015; Carmeli,
Dutton, & Hardin, 2015). From this viewpoint, while some workers are socially interwoven, others are
socially isolated. In particular, socially intertwined workers accept new changes whereas socially
isolated workers prefer the status quo and detest novel changes. Through the creation of more IWB, IL
can improve the AP of employees. Moreover the empirical outcomes of this study will be helpful to
Int. Journal of Business Science and Applied Management / Business-and-Management.org
private hospitals in meeting novel changes in a dynamic setting by considering leadership as a way to
boost employees’ innovation.
Our study sought to examine the influence of IL on AP the role of IWB based on social exchange
theory. The results of the study confirmed the positive relationship between IL and AP, the positive
relationship between IL and IWB, the positive relationship between IWB and AP. The study confirms
the mediating role of IWB between IL and AP. Although it achieved all the intended objectives, and
made some contribution to the extant literature, there are some limitations worth mentioning. This is
necessary because a recognition of a study’s limitations is an element of the potency of any research
(Van Dolen, De Ruyter & Lemmink, 2004). The shortcomings of this study provide opportunities for
further research. One possible suggestion for future study is to investigate the role of the individual
level of motivations and attitudes such as intrinsic motivation, psychological empowerment, and
creative self-efficacy (Shin & Zhou, 2003; Zhang & Bartol, 2010). The second possibility is to
determine the impacts of contextual factors such as the climate for innovation and leadermember
exchange (Aarons & Sommerfeld, 2012; Jaiswal & Dhar, 2015; Wang et al., 2015). Moreover, the
recommendations from this study on AP can be extended to other private hospitals. Specifically, the
first limitation of this study is the small sample size, which constitutes a barrier to the generalization of
the findings. Therefore, it is recommended that future studies should use larger samples, other cities
and sectors. Secondly, since this study investigated the mediating role of IWB on the relationship
between IL and AP, future studies should explore additional mediating variables on the relationship
between IL and AP. Finally, the external validity of the empirical outcomes of this study may be
limited due to the selected sample from Jordan. Hence, researchers may replicate this study by using a
different culture or background to increase the generalizability of the findings.
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